Chapter 2 Review of linear algebra

Modern statistics and machine learning rely heavily upon linear algebra, nowhere more so than in multivariate statistics. In the first part of this chapter (sections 2.1 and 2.2) we review some concepts from linear algebra that will be needed throughout the module, including vector spaces, row and column spaces, the rank of a matrix, etc. Hopefully most of this will be familiar to you.

We then cover some basic details on inner-product or normed spaces in 2.3, which are vector spaces equipped with a concept of distance and angle. Finally, in Section 2.4 we will describe the centering matrix. Further details and proofs for this section will be tackled in the exercises in Section 2.6.

I do not provide proofs for many of the results stated in this chapter, but instead prove a small selection which I think it is useful to see. For a complete treatment of the linear algebra needed for this module, see the excellent book “Linear algebra and learning from data” by Gilbert Strang.

I have recorded videos on some (but not all) of the topics in these notes: